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Did Neandertals live at or above the Arctic Circle?

Examining work by Ludovic Slimak and coworkers on the Byzovaya site, with Mousterian artifacts near the Arctic Circle in Russia.

Stone tool from Byzovaya, Russia, in four views
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Who first inhabited the European Arctic? A look at Mamontovaya Kurya

I examine a new paper reviewing a site in the far north of European Russia, with critical examination of the idea that Neandertals were this far north 40,000 years ago.

A mammoth tusk with a series of many parallel cutmarks across it. An inset shows some of the cutmarks in detail.