Bugtipithecus inexpectans and Phileosimias kamali

Three new species of early Oligocene anthropoid monkeys are reported by Laurent Marivaux and colleagues (2005) in PNAS. These are presented as stem anthropoids, with Bugtipithecus a member of the amphipithecids, along with Pondaungia and Myanmarpithecus. The two species of Phileosimias, P. kamali and P. brahuiorum are proposed to be eosimiid primates, related to Eosimias and Phenacopithecus.

If all that is beyond you, it's beyond me too. There are a lot of early anthropoids now, from Asia and Africa. From the penultimate paragraph:

The results of our various phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 4), primarily based on morphological characters (see supporting information), consistently point toward the monophyly of a large clade, including Asian Eosimiidae, Amphipithecidae, AraboAfrican Oligopithecidae, Propliopithecidae, African Proteopithecidae, Parapithecidae, and South American platyrrhine primates. Assuming this clade to be the Anthropoidea clade (10), from the present evidence, eosimiids and amphipithecids (and by extension Phileosimias and Bugtipithecus, respectively) are stem anthropoids (17) and, as such, support the hypothesis that Asia was the ancestral homeland of the Anthropoidea clade (16, 10). The discovery of Phileosimias and Bugtipithecus from the Oligocene of Pakistan demonstrates that eosimiids remained highly evolutionary conservative through time and that amphipithecids were very autapomorphic with respect to their coeval African relatives, which had evolved into advanced species with more or less modern anatomy (19, 3638). This apparent evolutionary disparity between EoceneOligocene anthropoids of Asia and Africa suggests that anthropoids must have dispersed rapidly between the two continents (39) just after their common Asian ancestry and evolved in relative isolation on both continents during the Paleogene (Marivaux et al. 2005:8441, citations in original).


Marivaux L, et al. 2005. Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 102:8436-8441. PNAS online