Incidental capuchin flake manufacture

This is a nice article by Ed Yong about Michael Haslam’s research documenting how capuchin monkeys incidentally make stone flakes as a side effect of their nut smashing: “Rock-Smashing Monkeys Unintentionally Make Sharp Stone Tools”.

The interesting thing is that many of the flakes are indistinguishable on technical grounds from Oldowan flakes. That raises the possibility that intermittent, possibly local traditions of nut-cracking among some forms of primates might create the appearance of localized flake assemblages.

He also thinks that archaeologists should spend more time looking for the works of ancient monkeys and apes. “[We should] consider what other non-human primates in Africa and elsewhere may have been up to for the past tens of millions of years,” he says. “There is no reason why stone flakes may not be littered throughout primate history, at unknown places and times.”

Actually, I think there is nothing materially different about what these capuchins are doing and what early hominins were doing when they made flakes. One may say that the hominins made flakes “intentionally”, or with a goal in mind to use the flake. But the difference here is not cognitive, it that the capuchins have not learned socially to use flakes for anything.

Primatologists already observe capuchin monkeys learning socially to lift rocks nearly half their body weight, thrust them down onto a platform with a fruit, and repeat this until yummy bits of nutmeat scatter everywhere. It would not take any great cognitive advance for them to learn how to use flakes, if there were something useful for them to do. The ability to generalize is simply the ability to emulate others.