|Title||Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2003|
|Authors||van Schaik, CP, Ancrenaz, M, Borgen, G, Galdikas, B, Knott, CD, Singleton, I, Suzuki, A, Utami, SS, Merrill, M|
|Journal||Science (New York, N.Y.)|
|Date Published||2003 Jan 3|
|Keywords||behavior, culture, orangutans, primates, social learning|
Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and no effect of habitat on the content of culture. Hence, great-ape cultures exist, and may have done so for at least 14 million years.
Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture.
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