Credits and copyright

The text and images on this website are original works by John Hawks, except where noted otherwise, and are protected by copyright.

Creative Commons license

I make the text of this website and specified images available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.

Exceptions to this general CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 provision are documented clearly on the individual pages, and include some copyrighted images used here under fair use guidelines, as well as some embedded videos and resources that are included by permission. These external resources may be reused only with permission of the original copyright holders.

The CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 license freely allows you to:

  • Share images and excerpts with students and friends
  • Distribute links and images (with attribution) on social media
  • Use images with attribution on non-commercial websites
  • Use images and diagrams in classroom teaching and for classroom activities
  • Print images, diagrams and single articles to distribute to students
  • Use images and diagrams as part of public presentations

The terms of this license permit distribution and reprinting for personal, non-commercial and educational use. The terms of the license do not allow:

  • Repackaging the materials into derivative works, even noncommercial or education works
  • Making artistic recreations
  • Bundling articles into e-texts or coursepacks
  • Selling products that contain any materials under the license
  • Translation into other languages

If you want to do any of these things, please contact me. I may be able to work with you for particular projects, but I must work within the constraints under which I was given permission for certain content.


The CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 license specifies that any reuse of materials should include attribution. For people using Creative Commons materials, the method of attribution is a frequent cause of confusion for people wanting to cite or distribute material under the license.

Image attribution

Photo or art credits follow each image used on the site. For example, if the photo credit reads, “Ditsong Museum of Natural History, John Hawks CC-BY-NC-ND”, please use the following citation:

Photo credit: Ditsong Museum of Natural History, John Hawks CC-BY-NC-ND. Available at